Historically, sports have played a role in shaping national identity and culture. While some believe that the association between sport and nationalism is purely patriotic and chauvinistic, others see it as an extension of political conservatism. Both sides make their cases, but there is some evidence to suggest that sports have been a key factor in the rise of liberal nationalist movements. For example, in the 19th century, the Slavic gymnastics movement, known as the Falcon, and its gymnastic clubs, were at the forefront of the national liberation struggle against Russian, Austrian, and Russian rule.
In the 20th century, globalization brought a new international sporting culture and economy. The process also brought about the rise of national sports organizations around the world. It also helped standardize rules and create regular international competitions, such as the Olympic Games. Sports have also influenced the development of cosmopolitanism and ethnic defensiveness in a global context.
Emotions are an integral part of the sports experience. They reflect an athlete’s self-evaluation of performance and their perception of others’ evaluations. They occur before, during, and after a performance. The subculture of sports encourages athletes to manage their feelings in a healthy way. Some sports have specific rules for the behavior of athletes, including appropriate behavior during the national anthem and postgame celebrations.
Sports are also a source of intense identification with a team. Some fans even express a passionate hatred for the opposing team. This intense identification can lead to feelings of despair when an idol is injured, or elation when a last-minute goal turns defeat into victory.